London Ambulance Service has released a guide on what to do in the case of an acid attack.

The information was shared after noxious substances were used in a string of attacks in the capital.

Medical director Dr Fenella Wrigley advised taking the following steps:

• Remove the chemical causing the burn while protecting yourself. Wear gloves or use a towel or other suitable object.

• Remove contaminated clothing or jewellery to prevent further burning.

• Rinse the burn immediately with a gentle, steady stream of cool tap water over the burn for 10 or more minutes. A shower can be used if available, and mild soap can be used on skin safely. Always protect your eyes while washing acid off your skin.

• Loosely apply a dry bandage, gauze or clean cotton clothing.

• For minor burns (not affecting the face) take an over-the-counter pain reliever, such as paracetamol or ibuprofen.

• For further medical advice, call NHS 111.

When to seek emergency care:

• The person is showing signs of shock such as fainting, a pale complexion or very shallow breathing.

• The chemical has burnt through the first layer of their skin (ie a blister has formed) and the burn covers an area more than 3 inches (about 8 centimetres) in diameter.

• The chemical burn goes all the way round a limb or involves the eyes, hands, feet, face, groin or buttocks, or a major joint such as the knee or elbow.